Conservation status of the Little Bustard in Extremadura
Little Bustard (Tetrax tetrax) has been classified last year 2016 with the category of “In danger of extinction” in the Regional Catalog of Threatened Species Extremadura
The Spanish population is the most important at European level, with an estimated population of 41,482-86,195 breeding males. The main area of distribution of the sine in Spain is the plateau (Castilla-La Mancha and Madrid) and Extremadura.
The evolution of the reproductive population in Extremadura in the last years is clearly negative, with data that show a population decline close to 60% during the period between 2005 and 2015, with mean provincial densities for this last year of 0.78 Y 0, 66 evils / Km for Badajoz and Cáceres, respectively.
The causes of the strong population decline and the reduction of the area of occupation of the Little Bustard (Tetrax tetrax) are a sum of the changes that have occurred in the traditional agriculture and livestock in the last decades, which have caused to decrease.
In some cases, agricultural and livestock intensification are eliminating pseudo-steppe agro-ecosystems (transformations to irrigated crops, expansion and intensification of woody crops), and in others degradation by the simplification of the agricultural ecosystem by elimination of boundaries, Increase of the average The use of short-cycle varieties, increased use of pesticides, frequency, intensity, and speed in the execution of cultivated varieties, reduction of the number of cultivable varieties, Of agricultural work. This is the sum, in cattle-raising areas, increased stocking pressure, increased stocking rate and change in livestock management, which greatly reduces pasture quality, reducing its protective capacity and provisioning of trophic resources.
These changes are compounded by the effects of climate change on these pseudo-estuary environments, intensifying the impacts produced by intensification of agriculture and livestock, (spring advance and shortening, influence on plant and invertebrate production, Harvesting, etc.).
Occasionally the species is affected by other activities such as afforestation of pseudo-estuarine areas, land occupation by infrastructure and industrial and / or urban developments, mortality of unnatural origin by collisions with electric lines, poaching, the confusion with game species, as a likely Increase in predator pressure.
Non-productive legume crops
One of the measures that have been proposed after studies of trends of the Little Bustard is the Non-productive cultivation of legume without harvest (tillage + seed + phosphoric fertilization). So in our photographic project we propose to the owner the planting of at least 5 hectares with the following conditions:
Cost: € 190 / ha * 5 ha = € 950
Objectives of the measure: To improve the fertility and the structure of the soil, also reducing the application of synthetic fertilizers. Improve feeding habitat for steppe birds in rainfed soils and generate sufficient cover to reproduce.
Description: Sowing of monospecific legumes or mixed species (vetch, lupine, pea, chickpea, habines, yeros and cereal). When using the legume mixture with the cereal, the percentage of seed will be 80% of leguminous seed and 20% of cereal. These areas can not be harvested, and if exploited by livestock on the farm (if any), would be after August 1.
Culture. The sowing leaf is dedicated to the following crops: habines, veza, yeros, lupine, pea, chickpea or mixture of them. A cereal may be included as a vegetable support or guardian taking into account the aforementioned ratio. The sowing dose will be at least 100 kg of legume and if cereal is added, up to 20 kg of the same can be added.
Fertilization. An estimate given on the farm or nearby farms will be applied to any of the rainfed work prior to the sowing of vegetables. The application time depends on the state of the manure (young or old) but should preferably be between July and September of each year. It is applied in such a way that it is homogeneously spread over the whole surface and it is convenient to use specific machinery (distributor). It will be collected from the stables and deposited in a flat place for further treatment. The application of water and the elimination of manure favors its evolution towards a more evolved organic substrate and that once applied to improve its incorporation to the non-productive crop and the structure of the soil. In addition, up to 18 UF of phosphorus / ha will be applied.
Time of work. The calendar is adapted to the date of the season (winter or spring) as follows:
Boom or barbechera and binado: between August 15 and March 1
Use: as of August 1.
Sowing: September-October or February-March.
Use of plant protection products. Don’t use herbicides, fungicides or insecticides will be used.
Uncultivated areas. In the worksheets where the rocky aerosols are found they stop hurrying the work, leaving a separation distance of less than 2 m to the edge of the outcrop. In the arrangements an uncultivated strip of 2 will be respected on each side, avoiding in any case to affect the vegetation of riverside.
Cattle raising. The unproductive legume planting leaf can be harvested (a tooth) from August 1st.
Nature photography as a model of conservation and sustainable development
In recent years, there has been a real boom in nature photography, with a steady increase in the number of fans and a growing demand for destinations to enjoy this hobby. It is in this context that they intend to use a description of the formula to generate resources.
The male of Sison, in his time of zeal, performs a spectacular procession consisting to kick and jumps to expose its spring plumage, once it emits a very singular sound. This exhibition in a colorful environment such as pseudo-steppe Extremadura, is worth retaining in our retina, but also to capture on the sensors of the cameras and store in their memories, in order to remember long of our lives. Being a species accustomed to humanized environments, tolerates perfectly the presence of a skin in the vicinity of the cantadero, especially if its handling is done in a controlled way with strict compliance with the hours of use At noon taking advantage of hours of inactivity, the Exit Fast skin-assisted by a guide) thus limiting to the maximum possible annoyance for birds.
In this case, we intend to install small hidden, consisting of two glass-mirror wooden huts, a type of structure that allows total comfort of vision and freedom of movement to the photographer, with presence completely unnoticed for birds. In any case, for the installation and the exploitation of these skins have already been issued the authorizations by the Ministry of Environment of the Board of Extremadura.
In this way, the photographer has the possibility to photograph the pleasure of the most attractive birds of our country in a controlled way, with the absolute guarantee that there is no occasion disturbs the birds during the period of zeal. To make use of the hiding place, the photographer must pay the fee for a session established between 85 and 100 €, the amount according to the usual market rates in our country for the use of this type of resource. Crowding, its true price will be € 60, of which 65% will go to planting vegetables in a neighboring plot and the rest of the leathers. In the case of extinction, the term “extinction” is used to describe the habitat of this species.
The investment necessary for the installation of the leathers is 250 € / hide * 2 decks = 500 €
The project was developed within the European network of protected areas Natura 2000, specifically in a Special Protection Area for Steppe Birds; In a cattle farm located in the vicinity of the town of Campo Lugar, Cáceres, Extremadura.